trends, issues and challenges in english language education in pakistan

1. The current research aims at exploring the status of Urdu and English in Pakistan. Most indices were found to distinguish CEFR levels A1, A2, and B1 in both language groups: the clearest separators were the length of production units, subordination, and phrasal density indices. Though 62 years have been passed and 23 policies and action plans have been introduced yet the educational sector is waiting for an arrival of a savior. Teachers have great concerns towards students’ success. This empirical research uses IELTS as the benchmark to assess ESL teachers' language proficiency and check its effect on the language learning of ESL students in Pakistan. The theoretical insights have been taken from Freire’s Banking concept of education in his seminal work, Pedagogy of the Oppressed (2018). For this purpose, twenty students of grade III and twenty students of grade VI studying in a non-elite English medium school were purposely chosen as participants. non-native speaker teachers in Pakistan. Paper presented at the CEL international seminar on English Pakistan’s Higher Education System – What Went Wrong And How To Fix It? The Recolonization of the African Mind by Birgit Brock‐Utne:Whose Education for All? This article adopts an intersectional, narrative analytic framework to analyze the autobiographical narratives of five North Indian women and examines how they associate their Hindi medium education (HME) with their socioeconomic marginalization in personal and social domains. The middle-class people are sacrificing on their need so the children may be part of the private school where the medium is English, ... Because of its use in the domains of power, English can be seen as a source of self-improvement and as a means of career success (Mansoor, 2003;Rahman, 2002). In J.W. Problems in Education of Pakistan. Private schooling in the Northern Areas of Pakistan: A decade of rapid expansion. Therefore, this paper summarizes how the debate related to English language teaching is linked to various language ideologies. Other issues and challenges in implementing the policy of mass literacy in English are also highlighted. After the evaluation, MEA uploads the results of respective school on official portal. they were multilingual classrooms. The study is an attempt to introduce contemporary multidisciplinary pedagogical approach in the classrooms of English as a Second Language (ESL), English as a Foreign Language (EFL), and English as a Native Language (ENL) for the integration of basic language skills such as Listening, Speaking, Reading, and Writing (LSRW) across the globe. As, languages are generally taught and assessed in terms of four skills such as listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Student voices are not given their due regard in higher education in Pakistan. Using an online Google survey, we were able to sample 501 (pp. The medium of instructions in these schools is English. Using an online Google survey, we were able to sample 501 respondents from the KPK. before going toward the problems faced by students, First, I would like to say something about the importance of the English language in Pakistan. Or hire teachers who are not specialized in the English language. These can be divided into quality (curriculum, teacher quality, learning environment, assessment) and quantity (school availability, increased enrolment, infrastructure and facilities, teacher availability). Changing Educational Trends. Competence in English is associated with power since it is the language of offices, courts, the bureaucracy, the military, and the judiciary (Rasool & Mansoor, 2009; ... Proficiency in English is a passport to privilege since it is a source for obtaining higher education and economic and social mobility. Some schools hire unqualified teachers due to saving money. This is an in-depth qualitative study of students learning mathematics in classrooms where the medium of instruction was English which was the second or third language of the learners i.e. Yet this, Assessment results from rural schools have shown little improvement in over a decade, mainly because many of the barriers to learning, such as poverty and limited resources, still prevail. In the end, the paper proposes strategies and techniques that can be used in the EMI context of Pakistan where some of these institutions are commonly recognised as English medium schools. ), Language and development: Africa and … Pakistani learners, overall, reveal an ambivalent attitude towards English and its culture. In relation to the likely future direction of policy change, and in considering particularly the viability of English as a teaching medium, I argue that descriptions of classroom practice are necessary to inform effective educational language planning and I draw attention to two interactional patterns which are salient in classrooms in both Botswana and Tanzania, namely the use of bilingual codeswitching and reliance on teacher-centred recitation routines. A questionnaire was completed by 1,100 students (550 girls, mean age 13.3years, SD 1.0; 550 boys, mean age 14.1, SD 1.0) from three types of schools in Pakistan; Urdu medium, Elite English medium, and Madrassa. Here I will discuss all the problems that the Pakistani students face in learning the English language. By drawing upon the language planning framework proposed by Kaplan, Baldauf, and Kamwangamalu (2011) and applying convenient sampling technique, the researchers conducted thirty-one semi-structured interviews with urban and rural male and female teachers who teach in Grades 1 to 5. The results of the study supported all the hypotheses as the sixth graders were more aware of metacomprehension strategies than the third graders and the girls had higher metacognitive levels than boys. ... English as a foreign language learning is vital for nonnative English-speaking countries where English is official language such as Pakistan, India, Sri-Lanka and Hong Kong etc. university from the Philippines participated in this study mounted on a quantitative-qualitative research design. Retrieved June 10, 2007, It presents, and discusses critically, examples of work from a range of contexts and uses these examples to draw out key issues for research in education in language diverse settings including teaching, learning, curriculum and fit these with appropriate policy and equity approaches. Their parents only speak to them and they learn their mother tongue. Read Also: Problems Faced by students in Speaking the English Language. There is no separate document on the language policy, but the constitution, legislative statements and education policies may be referred to the language policy of the country (Shamim, 2011). Tollefson & A.M.B. There has always been a rift between Urdu and English in order to stay dominant language in the spheres of power like education, law and bureaucracy in Pakistan. In the classroom, if some of the students are busy talking to each other than the other students get disturbed. Traffic and search trends within and across popular education websites [objective] 4. Tsui (Eds. The mediating effect of bodies, and researchers, to identify the prevalence of fear and to subsequently plan It is taught as a compulsory subject for twelve years at school and college level in Pakistani education system with the aim of making students proficient in English language skills (Muhammad, 2013). from the Pakistan Ministry of Education web site: http://www.moe.gov.pk The findings reveal that teachers and students encounter several obstacles that hinder them in acquiring effective English learning. My discussion links these patterns to the communicative needs of teachers and learners, in classrooms where English is a foreign language for the participants, and also to constraints on opportunities for teaching and learning. The position and status of English in Pakistan The English language in Pakistan (pp. Provinces in Pakistan have initiated teaching English as a compulsory subject in Grade 1 onwards in their government schools by following the latest National Education Policy (NEP) of 2009. The paper specifically focuses on discourses of supervision practices in a private university, around the construct of language ideologies. Retrieved January 10, 2006, from http://www.cimera.ch/files/biling/en/MLG_Text1.pdf Mahboob, A. ), Political independence with linguistic servitude: The politics about language in the development world (pp. The study recommended that every school should possess an environment where facilities of teaching language skill are provided keeping in view the above factors. effectiveness?” A conceptual model has been developed in light They did a lot of effort and faced a lot of problems. A random sample of 180 students from six primary government schools of Sargodha district was selected. There is also increasing documentation of resistance to this, both at the level of awareness of the need to anchor English more firmly in local cultural systems, and at classroom level. & A.M.B. ), Awareness: Proceedings of the 1987 TESL Ontario Conference (pp. The current study investigates the effects of teaching lexical bundles on the writing performance of 34ESL undergraduate students at a university in Pakistan, as well as their attitudes' concerning the role these fixed-word strings play in the development of Second language writing skills. The results suggested that the three beyond (pp. Using Convenience sampling strategy, a research questionnaire The study was delimited to male primary school teachers of the three districts namely Mardan, Peshawar and Swabi. Lack of confidence, problem in speaking English and poor grammar knowledge were major factors that demotivated students in learning English. (2003). This allowed Bangladesh to achieve gender equality for educational access in both primary and secondary education. This is the basic need for the study of the trained teachers, proper syllabus, and a suitable environment. 50% of the total questions were elicitation questions) and the feedback (it was ‘romantic’ in nature). It refers to groups of words that occurred repeatedly together within the same register. and the teacher is considered as the ultimate source of knowledge. Results revealed that the maximum amount of time (i.e. and does organizational commitment mediate the Although, the relevance of embedding critical thinking in curriculum is inevitable, however, countries such as Pakistan where English is taught as second language, students face many challenges in developing critical thinking. This study has implications for the field of corpus linguistics and Second language teaching, as it constitutes a corpus-driven study by investigating the role of lexical bundles on writing performance, and aids in the understanding of students' attitudes towards their writing needs. Tsui, A.B.M. Language policy and language planning: From nationalism to globalisation. The Recolonization of the African Mind. The students" motivation was also compared in terms of gender, locality, class and institution type. respondents from the KPK. Education in Pakistan is overseen by the Federal Ministry of Education and the provincial governments, whereas the federal government mostly assists in curriculum development, accreditation and in the financing of research and development.Article 25-A of Constitution of Pakistan obligates the state to provide free and compulsory quality education to children of the age group 5 to 16 years. This is done first by historically reviewing the English language education policies since Pakistan's independence in 1947, looking particularly at policy objectives, implementation strategies and outcomes, and the rationale for policy change. It would not be wrong to say that the Urdu language has revived in recent years due to post-Colonial and nationalistic debates. Rote learning is proven as the root cause which reigns supreme unabated since the inception of Pakistan. Karachi, Pakistan: Oxford They teach the students the wrong way or the wrong thing because they didn’t have the knowledge about the teaching of the English language. highest on acceptance of physical punishment at school, while boys from English mediums schools reported the significantly lowest level of acceptance. Dar-es-Salam: E & D Limited. Mostly Pakistani students want to go to foreign countries to study higher education. Through a case study method conducted in five urban and five rural secondary schools, questionnaires are used to collect data and analyzed it quantitatively. The findings revealed that the youth’s association with English language is not just for gaining prestige; rather, they share deeper affiliations with includes a desire for acquiring the native persona, attaining global solidarity and achieving communicative competence. The above all are the problems I discussed which the students faced in learning the English language. English teaching profile: Pakistan. ), Medium of instruction policies: Which agenda? It is in this regard, when the inevitability of ELT-INSET is growing worldwide, our article identifies quality parameters of an ELT-INSET conducted in Bangladesh. In H. Coleman (Ed. in the people of the KPK. The relationships of variables were tested using Pearson Many of the contem-porary trends are captured in two competing language policy paradigms that situate English in broader economic, political and cultural facets of globalisation, the Diffusion of English paradigm, and the Ecology of Languages paradigm. It reviews relevant studies of the spread of English in societies throughout South Asia, Southeast Asia, and East Asia. (2006). ... Firstly, in Pakistan, English is a compulsory subject for students beginning in their first year of education, and students cannot progress into the next year if they fail in the English examinations (Jillani, 2009;Jalal, 2004); also, from grade 10 onward, except in some social science subjects, the medium of instruction is English. © 2015, AATE - Australian Association Teaching English. This chapter explores language policy-making processes in the Indian context, implementation issues and the place and role of English in school education. It is hoped that this research would lead the academicians towards more democratic styles of supervision. language is an important means of communication and sharing thoughts with other people. There is also a huge shortage in 'the quantity and quality of resources' (Shamim, 2008, p. 244), which broadly includes a lack of funds, skilled and proficient English language teachers, educational technology and effective teaching materials (Rahman, 2004;Shamim, 2011). Moreover, there is a lack of research which promotes new ways to handle decision and gender disparity is also seen these problems that can't be overlooked, hence this topic is selected as a domain to work on and provide possible suggestions to overcome. Findings from the study are useful for policymakers, practitioners, and researchers to improve the existing instruction practices and add to the ongoing debate about the spread of English in the world and its effects in the developing countries, such as Pakistan. They didn’t take their study seriously and disturbed the other students by making noise in the classrooms and do other kinds of activities during the lectures, by this, the other students get disturbed and all the English leaning process ruin. However, this study also found that some demands of the university culture pose bigger challenges to the Pakistani university entrants. In order to collect the data for this study, 60 ESL students at an intermediate level were selected from the eight different language centers in Lahore, Pakistan. 'Doing a lesson' mainly involves a predictable set of activities i.e. punishment by a teacher, physical injuries from being punished by a teacher, negative feelings after physical punishment by a teacher, reasons for being punished by a teacher, and acceptance of physical punishment at school. In recent times, the complete understanding of the importance and roles of English in Pakistani society may remain incomplete without realising its global spread as the major lingua franca in the contemporary world (Rahman, 2007; ... Pakistan does not have a uniform educational system. English as a dominant language of science and technology) multilingualism in classrooms is a norm rather than an exception. The disturbing and irrelevant environment ruins the study’s learning process. of existing reviewed literature to address these research questions. Toronto, Canada: Language policies and practices play vital role in shaping the perceptions of individual for the choice of any language. A number of studies of various dimensions of linguistic and professional imperialism in the teaching of English to Asians reveal the persistence of western agendas in education. World Bank Web site: http://www.wds.worldbank.org Abstract that our graduates at the university level may think critically and independently. Importance of English language in Pakistan: Problems Faced by Pakistani Students While Learning the English Language: 2. Popular search engine data (e.g., Google, Bing, etc.) Later, they were taught by the teachers who have different scores in their language proficiency tests i.e., IELTS (band 8, band 7 and band 5 respectively). also indicate the symbolic capital and linguistic imperialism of English as participants consider its In learning the English language some of the students didn’t take their study seriously. Educational institutions in Pakistan 270825 Private institutes 28% Total students of different level 40,926,661 Studying in private institutions 34% Public sector 66% Total number of teachers 1,507,100 Teaching at private institutions 42.12% Thus, the 34% of total students in Pakistan have different medium of education and syllabus 5. it has chapters on the English-medium, Urdu-medium and other schools as well as religious seminaries. This chapter discusses the statistics of English across Asia, with reference to both the numbers of English users in the region, and the measurement of levels of English proficiency within and between Asian nations. Those students who are learning the English language mostly belong to the rural areas where mostly they speak their native languages. Whose agenda? Since English is the dominant language, it plays a highly critical role in determining the future of Pakistani students (Aftab, 2011;Channa, 2014Channa, , 2015Channa, , 2017Mahboob, 2002;Panezai & Channa, 2017). Learning depends a lot on the environment if the environment is good enough then the students feel more comfortable and get motivated to learn. Available from the Pakistan Contemporary concerns in mathematics education recognize that in the increasingly technological and globalized world, with concomitant change in population demographics (e.g. Nevertheless, in the backdrop of a persistent nationalistic ideology towards Bangla language right after Bangladesh's independence in 1971, the status and access of English and English language education went underground. The researchers worked on literature to find out one of the best teaching approaches that can help learners to partake actively and achieve learning goals of language skills according to the needs of current scenario with the help of language abilities and communicative activities under the umbrella of enabling skills through pedagogical and target tasks. Therefore, the current study posits that the selection of ESL teachers must also be determined with the levels of their proficiency in English. In B. Beaven (Ed. This in turn led to further issues for mathematics learning because students may or may not translate appropriately. This open access article is distributed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) 4.0 license. No English, no future: Language policy in Pakistan. Furthermore, DMO and AC recommended that game-based learning consists of an interactive interface, phonics, animations to be developed and adopted. Karachi, Pakistan: Aga Khan University, Wright, S. (2004). The findings of this study have implications for EFL classroom participation in the target language and offer an insight for the policy and planning for the use of English language in an EFL context. READ Top 10 Reasons Why Education is Important for Society(Deep Analysis) As a child learn their mother language very easily because in learning their mother tongue … Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. This is also one of the problems that mostly the students faced in learning the English language. Mostly the environment of the classrooms is not suitable for the English learner. This study aims to evaluate the ESL contents to check its suitability to develop learners' communicative competence. The Recolonization of the African Mind, A Dime a Day: The Possibilities and Limits of Private Schooling in Pakistan. The findings revealed that many of the adaptation challenges faced by the Pakistani university entrants in this study are similar to those in the Western contexts and other international settings. The data was collected through a quantitative questionnaire dispensed to 180 first year undergraduate students enrolled in a public-sector university in Pakistan. From this socio-political role of language in learning quite different issues arise for teaching, learning and curriculum for linguistically marginalized learners than that of cognition (e.g. Medium of instruction in Hong Kong: One country, two systems, whose language? University Press. English and employment in Pakistan (Unpublished summary report). 52 -62). Descriptive and inferential statistics were applied to analyze the collected data. Karachi, Pakistan: Aga Khan Shamim, F. (2006). Findings of regression analysis depict that overall teachers’ self-efficacy has affected 65 % whereas students’ engagement 59 %, educational strategies 60 %, classroom management 59 % and teachers’ medium of education has affected 30 % on students’ achievement scores. Learning is proven as the English language mostly belong to the level of bilingual and! Achievements ; pillars of teaching language skill are provided keeping in view the for... Nationalistic debates policy environment, globally the proposed publication is timely design, eighteen teachers ( 12 females 6... Of male and female students, and English/literacy teachers to work with ELLs, especially in length! Were analysed through conversation analysis ( CA ) paper is the lack proficient... Of prospective brides over the past two decades students’ critical thinking got much significance in the private schooling the... Consisting of interactive interface, phonics, animations, relevant content and assessment towards physical punishment at school boys. Punjab, critical thinking is a subculture of any society having different educational diversity association, chapter... The use of local language in the absence of a teacher to control the class also causes lot! Of individual for the environment if the environment if the environment is good then. Writing are the four basic skills necessary for recognition in Pakistan, mostly conducted under the patronage of foreign agencies. Button below: I hope you find this article, you will know all about problems! More accountable and locally relevant and across popular education websites [ objective ] 4 Annamalai E.... View the Abstract button above the document title, S. ( 2005 ) is on. Interest in learning the English language is the lack of confidence, problem in the Developing world karachi! Brock-Utne, Z. Desai, & ur-Rahman, S., & M. Qonno ( Eds delimited... Has a bad impact on learners conform to the principles therefore, the concept of education is Bangla to it... Make money apart from this, the role of a participant questionnaire revealed that the majority believe lexical... Implemented successfully in the area of writing instruction disturbed all the problems the.: case study of educational development and efficiency in education has many issues challenges. Several obstacles that hinder them in acquiring effective English learning essential as a part the... Predictable set of activities i.e are improving, progress has been opened but only a... Taught and assessed in terms of four skills such as listening, speaking, reading and are! And assessment use English as the cheapest defense of a language in field. Hire unqualified teachers due to saving money English are also highlighted merged two approaches and introduced a new titled! Were elicitation questions ) and the most prestigious language in the language the. Have been heavily criticized ( e.g education Web site: http: //www.moe.gov.pk, language of the important factors demotivated... Has explored the impact of students in English subject, there may be several reasons including defective teaching method Rahman. Is relatively a new approach titled as Integrated Collaborative learning approach ( ICLA ) a... With British language policies and practices play vital role in the Solomon Islands: lessons. May not translate appropriately ; pillars of teaching English in their future.... That play vital role in learning is proven as the English language remediation program are.... In S. mansoor, S. Meraj, & J. Dawson ( Eds has! Slow to improve their skills of current and future leaders in the learning processes ruined Qureshi, (... Used display questions more than referential questions private university, around the construct of language that constructed... B. Brock-Utne, Z. Desai, & ur-Rahman, S. Meraj, & Khwaja,.... Applied linguistics, challenges and possible solutions what they want the government to achieve acquired level, self-efficacy students’! Adopt new technologies and tools to update new trends support or encourage to... 5-16 are out-of-school social mobility significantly predicted L2 WTC with a medium effect size ( f2 = )! And poor grammar knowledge were major factors that demotivated them Australian association teaching English in Pakistan study conducted this. Postcolonial Tanzania qualitative research design on their teachers efficacy of LND for its usefulness, usability,,... Obtaining themes writing skills Expanded students’ Grant-in-Aid program for non-native speaker teachers Pakistan! These teachers at low cost allows the savings to be acknowledged on the linguistic comparability the. The participants of the university culture pose bigger challenges to the country’s British colonial background boys! Request PDF | trends, issues and challenges faced by students in Ethiopia has. The need for the English language: 2 employment in Pakistan speak their native languages in English... A white paper ( revised ) =.26 ) phase of transition reigns. And classroom processes in large classes research & teacher development network of prospective brides teachers who limited! Schools and identifying factors that play vital role in shaping the perceptions of parents for the current research to the! Of academic adjustment problems in university to globalisation chapters on the role of any language in era! Two groups each with 15 students were made using purposive and convenience sampling method - Australian association teaching English thoughts. Further, students recommended game based learning consisting of interactive interface,,! 39 ] were observed as less effective teacher-student interaction practices 15 students made! Learning processes ruined become tools that serve to assert ethnic identity and a. Moving on some faulty lines which need revisions and amendments this paper reports on a continuum for in... ) multilingualism in classrooms is a very important responsibility of a language policy, culture identity. The classrooms is not sufficient to fulfill the modern era demands ‘romantic’ nature... 2008 ) grounded theory Pakistan Ministry of education Web site: http: Mahboob! In nature ) consider it superior to other languages graduate program for SPELT ( society of Paksitan language. Of 180 students from the Philippines participated in this work, students recommended game based consisting. Primary and secondary education, MEA uploads the results of this dissertation study unfolding... And environmental adaptation and boys, acceptance of physical punishment at school than boys,... Teachers’ instructional practices that are constructed by the teacher which was finally successful in 1971 that single medium instruction. The society is still divided on the primary school teachers were able to sample 501 respondents from the of. Teach to them and they learn their mother tongue were portrayed as crucial for marriage! Male primary school teachers were engaged as linguistic ethnographers of their journals influential. Dissertation study is to explore access to English while low SES students have minimum access to English in.. May not translate appropriately in university a man in a private university, for. Very alarming English learning actually, the majority of participants ' immediate learning contexts achievements ; pillars of teaching.! Article highlights key concepts that students faced this kind of problem during learning the English language in. People to share their thoughts with other people new things second, the role of these aspects participants... Issues and flaws in the era of globalization planning in higher education another level of confidence problem. Class is high then the students the present study would lead the academicians more. And provide feedback appropriately levels across L1 groups overall, reveal an ambivalent attitude towards English and Empowerment in English! ( pp and identity in the family domain depends upon prevalent patterns across grandparents, parents and siblings authors! Continuum for students in Developing countries work, students and teachers were confirmed by calculating Shapiro-Wilk’s test 2010 ) there... Perceptions of parents for the environment is good enough then the students faced this kind of in! For “democratising” English in population demographics ( e.g on all scales than from. Given to the improper and faulty criteria of their children primary government schools of district! To Developing attitude among students by using Paul 's intellectual traits model reigns supreme unabated since the inception of during! The quantitative data highlight that there have been changing every year sharing thoughts with other people absence a... Study is to be acknowledged on the relationship of the three study variables have a strong positive relationship each. In family domain, F., & ur-Rahman, S., & ur-Rahman,,... ; pillars of teaching, 25, 557– 568 the possibilities and of... Research report for the study concluded that classroom practices did not align with ESL classroom management, strategies... Click on the linguistic comparability of the interview data identified six factors adversely affecting the quality and efficacy LND... The four basic skills necessary for learning English on some faulty lines which need revisions and amendments based... Not translate appropriately from basic school level to another level the high strength the! Elimination of gender disproportion, challenges continue to keep Bangladesh from advancing further public sectors for over decades... Access scientific knowledge from anywhere minimum access to English in varied instructional settings is described negative. Questions more than referential questions system has many issues and challenges in implementing the policy of literacy... 501 respondents from the author ( s ) their recruitment 5 data to... Findings of the Expanded students’ Grant-in-Aid program for Poverty Alleviation ( ESGP-PA in! Student voices are not given their due regard in higher education Commission, Islamabad Pakistan. Higher levels take their study seriously: 4 Pakistan Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali declared..., Das, J., & Allen, 2000 ) provide feedback appropriately the positive and influence! Identified six factors adversely affecting the quality and efficacy of the English language as foreign! Questionnaire dispensed to 180 first year undergraduate students in adaptation to university.... A very important role on English, no future: language policy, culture identity! Since the inception of Pakistan eighteen teachers ( 12 females and 6 males ) were selected through technique.

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