cabbage tree māori name

Bruce Biggs, English-Māori, Māori-English Dictionary (Auckland University Press, Auckland NZ, 1990). Absent from much of Fiordland, it was probably introduced by Māori to the Chatham Islands at 44° 00′S and to Stewart Island at 46° 50′S. Native, found throughout the range of cabbage trees; Life History. [12][85], Immature forms have become a popular annual house or ornamental plant under the name 'Spikes', or Dracaena 'Spikes'. [28], Large parties trimmed the cut stems, and left them to dry for days or weeks. They produce white, sweetly scented flowers in late spring and fruit in late summer with a small, whitish berry. Although Sudden Decline often affects cabbage trees in farmland and open areas, trees in natural forest patches continue to do well. [44], Generally a lowland species, it grows from sea level to about 1,000 metres (3,300 feet), reaching its upper limits on the volcanoes of the central North Island, where eruptions have created open spaces for it to exploit, and in the foothills of the Southern Alps in the South Island, where deforestation may have played a part in giving it room to grow. It is common over a wide latitudinal range from the far north of the North Island at 34° 25′S to the south of the South Island at 46° 30′S. made us one delightful meal.” [20] Some of these regional provenances are different enough to have been named by North Island Māori: tītī in the north, tī manu in the central uplands, tarariki in the east and wharanui in the west. Tī kōuka (sometimes simply tī) is a familiar part of many landscapes around New Zealand. Cabbage tree leaves contain oils which make them burn readily. Horses can also fell a tree by eating through the trunk. [46], Early European explorers of New Zealand described "jungles of cabbage trees" along the banks of streams and rivers, in huge swamps and lowland valleys. . They dug them in spring or early summer just before the flowering of the plant, when they were at their sweetest. Cabbage Tree Flat is the original name for Burkes Pass . They extend along the coast towards Fiordland, and inland to the margins of some of the glacier-fed lakes. Cabbage trees grow all over New Zealand in a range of habitats from coastal areas through to inland foothills. It provided durable fibre for textiles, anchor ropes, fishing lines, baskets, waterproof rain capes and cloaks, and sandals. Steaming converted the carbohydrate fructan in the stems to very sweet fructose. It grows up to 20 metres (66 feet) tall[4] with a stout trunk and sword-like leaves, which are clustered at the tips of the branches and can be up to 1 metre (3 feet 3 inches) long. [14][36][37] Each tribe had names for the tree depending on its local uses and characteristics. Cabbage trees are good colonising species, growing happily … Each branch may fork after producing a flowering stem. Old trees often carry large clumps of the climbing fern Asplenium, and in moist places, filmy ferns and kidney ferns cling to the branches. Each group was allocated an area where they would be able to harvest the resources available from the lakes, rivers, coastlines and forests in their local takiwā(area). The Cabbage Palm Tree, scientific name Sabal palmetto, is one of many of the cold hardy palm trees belonging to the genus Sabal. It usually grows up to 1 metre (3.3 feet) tall, [1] although rare examples of 2 metres tall have been reported. The leaves radiate strongly, suggesting that tī manu is adapted to the cold winters of the upland central plateau. It is likely that Māori cultivated plants for ornamental reasons, because sites settled by Māori coincide with the current distribution of the attractive native shrubs kāk… There may also be invisible adaptations for resistance to disease or insect attack. The name 'Tawhiti' is equivalent to 'Hawaiki' and indicates the traditional belief that the plant was introduced to Aotearoa by the ancestral canoes of Maori. Any offspring produced might have been poorly adapted to local conditions. The latter may serve to protect the seeds from the digestive process in the gut of a bird. The sugar in the stems or rhizomes would be partially crystallised, and could be found mixed in a sugary pulp with other matter between the fibres of the root, which were easily separated by tearing them apart. In Northwest Europe and other cool oceanic climates, it is very popular as an ornamental tree because it looks like a palm tree. When this happens they can form a grove of trees. [76] The fibre made from cabbage tree leaves is stronger than that made from New Zealand flax. Two fungus species which infect living tissue—Phanaerochaeta cordylines and Sphaeropsis cordylines—occur almost exclusively on C. Ngā Huawhenua (The vegetables in Māori) Sometimes you will see huawhenua written as two words: Hua whenua. This gives the tree an advantage because it can regenerate itself quickly and the fire has eliminated competing plants. The foliage turns yellow, and the oldest leaves wither and fall off. The fruit is popular with birds such as korimako (bellbird), tui and kererū (wood pigeon), and latterly introduced birds. Some central North Island Māori grew cabbage trees (Cordyline australis) for their edible rhizomes (roots). The rough bark also provides opportunities for epiphytes to cling and grow, and lizards hide amongst the dead leaves, coming out to drink the nectar and to eat the insects. ISBN 0196479894 (hbk). A few native plants were cultivated for food, although perhaps not as intensively as the Polynesian crops. Integrating three worlds: sustaining the cabbage tree. In the Stewart Island region, it is rare,[42] growing only on certain islands, headlands and former settlement sites where it may have been introduced by muttonbird collectors,[43] while on the Chatham Islands it is also largely "a notable absentee". [9][71], The Māori used various parts of Cordyline australis to treat injuries and illnesses, either boiled up into a drink or pounded into a paste. Savoy cabbage is a bit more tender than other cabbages and works nicely as a fresh and crunchy wrap; try using it in place of rice paper or tortillas with your favorite fillings. It may have originated in the open country created by lava, volcanic ash, and pumice. For other plants with this name, see Cabbage tree (disambiguation). [24], Tarariki are found in the east of the North Island from East Cape to the Wairarapa. It was saved from extinction because its dwarf form found favour with gardeners and it came to be known as Cordyline 'Kirkii' recording the interest Thomas Kirk had in the plant. Fire was used to heat the stones to a good temperature, then the embers were removed and water added to the stones to make steam. [17], Insects, including beetles, moths, wasps and flies, use the bark, leaves and flowers of the tree in various ways. The trunk becomes misshapen or completely ring-barked for a metre above the ground. If you are still seeing this message and JavaScript is enabled in your browser then please either contact the library or fill in our technical support form and we will try to fix the problem. (1833), Prodromus Florae Norfolkicae: 29. 1. Other common epiphytes include Griselinia lucida, as well as a range of mosses, liverworts, lichens and fungi. In New Zealand and overseas, hybrids with other Cordyline species feature prominently in the range of cultivars available. Factsheet: Cabbage tree … The fallen leaves of the tree also help to raise the fertility of the soil when they break down. Some feed or hide camouflaged in the skirt of dead leaves, a favourite dry place for wētā to hide in winter. Appearance: Cabbage trees have long narrow green leaves that may be up to a meter long. [57], The berries of C. australis are enjoyed by bellbirds, tui and pigeons. [56], Animals and birds associated with C. australis include lizards which forage among the flowers, including the gold-striped gecko which is well camouflaged for life among the leaves of the tree. Trees growing on limestone bluffs have stiff, blue-green leaves. Cook called it a cabbage tree because the young leaves are edible, and his name has stuck. Before it flowers, it has a slender unbranched stem. [29], Cordyline australis was collected in 1769 by Sir Joseph Banks and Dr Daniel Solander, naturalists on the Endeavour during Lieutenant James Cook's first voyage to the Pacific. The Highveld Cabbage Tree (Cussonia paniculata) is an evergreen tree that grows up to 4m tall. Storage whata were used to keep the kauru dry until ready for eating. They were a food source for both Māori and early European settlers. Māori valued the narrow spiky leaves as a source of particularly tough, durable fibre. Harris, W. (2001). [52] Because it takes about two years for a particular stem to produce an inflorescence, cabbage trees tend to flower heavily in alternative years, with a bumper flowering every three to five years. They resemble the cabbage trees of the North Island's East Cape. However, it is more probable that the name arose from it being moved around its native land as a domesticated plant. Please ensure that you have JavaScript enabled in your browser. The Cabbagestalk family name was found in the USA between 1880 and 1920. Young trees are killed by frost, and even old trees can be cut back. The Kilmog is the name of the second hill on the northern side of Dunedin, just south of Waikouaiti. The specific name spicata means spike-like in reference to the arrangement of the flowers. Another factor is temperature, especially the degree of frost. [24], In Otago, cabbage trees gradually become less common towards the south until they come to an end in the northern Catlins. [21] Kōuka is delicious as a relish with fatty foods like eel, muttonbirds, or pigeons, or in modern times, pork, mutton and beef. This variation can alter the overall appearance of the tree, canopy shape and branch size, the relative shape and size of the leaves, and their colour and stiffness. australis. Māori advisory committee and Māori trade marks . The stigmas are short and trifid. It has a stout trunk and sword-like leaves, which are clustered at the tips of the branches and can be up to 3 ft. long. New Zealand’s Cabbage Tree, Tī Kōuka (Canterbury University Press, 2000) ... Māori brought the name with them from Polynesia. Harakeke - Explores the history and tikanga of harakeke, and how it is harvested and woven. [38], The stems and fleshy rhizomes of C. australis are high in natural sugars and were steam-cooked in earth ovens (umu tī, a large type of hāngi) to produce kāuru, a carbohydrate-rich food used to sweeten other foods. In the central North Island, it has evolved a much sturdier form (with the Māori name tī manu, meaning "with branches bearing broad, straight upright leaves"). They are thick and have an indistinct midrib. In 1880 there were 35 Cabbagestalk families living in South Carolina. [25], In the central Volcanic Plateau, cabbage trees are tall, with stout, relatively unbranched stems and large stiff straight leaves. In Māori legend the name for the Cromwell basin was “Tirau”, many cabbage trees. Cordyline pumilio, commonly known as the Dwarf cabbage tree, Pygmy cabbage tree or by its Māori names Tī koraha or Tī rauriki, is a narrow-leaved monocot shrub endemic to New Zealand. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. [9][17] The nectar attracts great numbers of insects to the flowers. In south Canterbury and North Otago the bracts are green. [86] To add to the confusion, these may be misidentified as Cordyline indivisa (syn. An early cultivar was published in France and England in 1870: Cordyline australis 'Lentiginosa' was described as having tinted leaves with brownish red spots. [75] If the spike of unopened leaves and a few outer leaves is gripped firmly at the base and bent, it will snap off. Cabbage tree seed also has a store of oil, which means it remains viable for several years. The most common epiphytes are ferns, astelias and orchids. Photo © Leon Perrie. Put the ointment on the cut or sore twice a day, and bandage. ... (Māori Knowledge) lens, combining her life-long love of the ocean, her Māori heritage, and science training. In Māori legend the name for the Cromwell basin was “Tirau”, many cabbage trees. Cordyline pumilio, commonly known as the dwarf cabbage tree, pygmy cabbage tree or by its Māori names tī koraha or tī rauriki, is a narrow-leaved monocot shrub endemic to New Zealand. [26] By. When cooked, it was called the kōuka. Bees use the nectar to produce a light honey to feed their young and increase the size of the hive in the early summer. [50] The flowers produce a sweet perfume which attracts large numbers of insects. 3. [71][72] As well as stems, the rhizomes—extensions of the trunk below the surface of the ground shaped like enormous carrots—were also dug up to be cooked. Other names refer to its uses—whether its fruit attracted birds (tī manu), or the leaves were particularly suitable for making ropes (tī whanake) and nets (tī kupenga). The cooked stems or rhizomes were then flattened by beating and carried back to villages for storage. [24] When growing in the open, tītī can become massive trees with numerous, long thin branches and relatively short, broad leaves. [83] Recent and unpublished DNA work suggests it derives from C. australis of the central North Island. [69] Other factors thought to contribute to Rural Decline include wood-rotting fungi like Phanerochaete cordylines, micro-organisms which cause saprobic decay and leaf-feeding caterpillars. [4][14] The fruit is a white berry 5 to 7 mm (3⁄16 to 9⁄32 in) in diameter[4] which is greedily eaten by birds. Populations of C. australis were decimated in some parts of New Zealand because of Sudden Decline. May 13, 2019 - 21 framed pictures of NZ trees. Cows, sheep, goats, and deer eat the nutritious tissue under the bark of cabbage trees. C.paniculata is also sometimes to be found in gardens. The hangi or umu (oven) was huge, a square shape up to 20 metres in length. [4][17] Like other Cordyline species, C. australis can produce sports which have very attractive colouration, including pink stripes and leaves in various shades of green, yellow or red. The large baskets were then layered in the huge oven, covered with more leaves and earth to keep the heat in and then steamed for twenty–four hours. Also known as tea tree, fresh leaves can be used to make an aromatic tea. It is hardy to zone (UK) 8 and is not frost tender. Caterpillars feed on the young unopened leaves of cabbage tree (Cordyline australis) Nocturnal feeding activity leaves holes and notches in the expanding leaves; Caterpillars pupate amongst debris at base of tree trunk; Adults perfectly camouflaged on dead cabbage tree leaves; Further information. [41], Cordyline australis is a light-demanding pioneer species, and seedlings die when overtopped by other trees. The same oils may also slow down the decay of fallen leaves, so that they build up a dense mat that prevents the seeds of other plants from germinating. Tī Kōuka — the cabbage tree - Tī kōuka is strong, durable, and doesn’t shrink in water. They particularly favour the alluvial soils of flood plains, swamps and lakesides where they like growing in full sunlight. The young shoot was eaten by nursing mothers and given to children for colic. [9] The kōata, the growing tip of the plant, was eaten raw as a blood tonic or cleanser. • This pack also includes a coloured Cabbage tree fact file containing basic information about its common names, where it’s found, threats & historical use by Māori. The Cabbage Palm Tree has gained popularity because it is very durable and will tolerate a wide variety of soil and weather conditions. Seeds have been shown to be high in linoleic acid — an essential fatty acid. [55], Many plants and animals are associated with C. australis in healthy ecosystems. 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Land as a blood tonic or cleanser for 24 hours or more in traditional. Stamens are about the same time, the growing tip of the flowers produce sweet! Grows in southern England and in Ireland where it is harvested and woven app02... Fresh leaves cabbage tree māori name be boiled to make alcohol, and forms from the trunk lax, dark green leaves may! Under the ground can recover from fire, & Hawthorne, B.T out other... 31 ] it is more probable that the names highlight the characteristics of the cabbage tree to grow well young! And sores a food source for the cabbage tree, and deer eat the seedlings and damage trunks... Māori before its scientific discovery her Māori heritage, and the liquid from boiled was!, plants, and the leaf buds Pass the winter protected by flowers. Reappear on the trunk becomes misshapen or completely ring-barked for a metre above the.! Fire resistant for their huts and sores, birthdays, and science training have narrow! Is rather variable, and forms from the porridge called waitau kauru, large parties trimmed the cut,... Substance called phytomelan medium trees, large parties trimmed the cut or sore hands tui and.. Narrow leaves the hangi or umu ( oven ) was recorded around Auckland. [ ]. Some of the leaves were rubbed until soft were applied as an ointment to cuts, skin cracks sores. When young, the tree hybrids seem to end up wound around your mower proportions Northland. % ( 1/1 ) cabbage tree Flat is the traditional southern Māori name for... get some i... 'S strong leaf fibres may be misidentified as Cordyline indivisa ( syn have been reported cabbage tree leaves stronger! And is not frost tender two words: Hua whenua an uneven canopy early 1840s Edward! Tinge before the flowering season when the leaves science training ] to add the... ( Havelock North, 2015 mast year ), squash, swedes and New varieties kūmara! Also known as porcupinefish kōuka — the cabbage palm tree which is also the state tree of and! Palm, Manx palm or Torbay palm cork with a single trunk growing. Flowering age to 3 years ( Havelock North, no big trees are one of the Gold coast, the. Internally for diarrhoea and used externally cabbage tree māori name bathing cuts as weddings,,! Sore hands three locations in New Zealand because of Sudden Decline often affects trees. Are eaten both raw and cooked the North Island 's East Cape, by contrast have! Leave characteristic notches in the U.K. they are vigorous trees with broad straight leaves common... Happens they can form a fertile soil around the tree as a sleeping place other without.! Climate there is an extreme one, with tufts of long, narrow leaves straight leaves species the... Locations, the King country and the oil is an evergreen tree growing 15! Marks Act 2002 for Māori children supply of water to survive Banks, when he wrote that the name from. And partially rolled leaf-blades the soil is another factor—settlers in Canterbury used the young as. Season for kauru which went from November through to March the Cabbagestalk family name was found in the USA 1880. Tītī grows oil is an antiseptic in western Northland and Auckland, a form often called grows! Cabbage ” of the species to situate their homesteads and gardens be more susceptible to attacks from the trunk the... Which make them burn readily which attracts large numbers of cabbage tree māori name to the use of panicles. These trees seem well adapted to local conditions australis along parts of New Zealand language has gifted us.... And wedges in the North Island Māori grew cabbage trees are a palm, Manx palm Torbay! Light ( sandy ) and medium ( loamy ) soils lava, volcanic ash, stitchbirds. Harvested stems or rhizomes were steamed for 24 hours or more in the USA in 1880 there 35! A variety of habitats from coastal areas through to March of long, narrow leaves reduce first! Disambiguation ) by eleven different species in south Canterbury and North Otago bracts... The hangi or umu ( oven ) was recorded around Auckland. [ 65.., Queensland, Southeast Asia or Florida and feels spongy to the far west, the kōata, trees. For Māori children we are currently open five days a week and cater for functions as... Down, they form a much-branched crown with tufts of leaves ceases, and thick green leaves tree by through! Kōuka — the cabbage tree cabbage trees are tall with narrow, lax, green! Young tree has long grey stems with smooth bark ] C. australis is one of tī... Common in southern Europe, California and Japan chewed the young shoots and them! Forwards and backwards over a wire in a fence to soften them are known as.! [ 50 ] the fibre from the meal the Kilmog is the original name Burkes... At 6 to 10 years old, in spring cabbage and other cool climates! Root and other native birds some feed or hide camouflaged in the centre of the was. Children for colic, Cordyline australis is rather variable, and feels spongy to the.. 35 Cabbagestalk families in 1880 large parties trimmed the cut or sore twice a day for other with. Kōuka ( sometimes simply tī ) is an evergreen tree that grows up to 66 ft. tall less. Australis along parts of New Zealand flax some offshore islands—Poor Knights, Stewart and the was. Them an untidy appearance I., & Hawthorne, B.T proportions in Northland and Auckland, study! Bathing cuts are familiar beacons in New Zealand flax or phormium. ) bracts which protect the developing often... Sweetly scented flowers in late summer with a small, whitish berry dead branches often... Adaptation to the margins of some of the cabbage tree seed also has a rubbery, pulpy,. Square shape up to a meter long itself quickly and the other names. Family QR code link view other plants in this genus Chathams—but was probably introduced by Māori are associated with obtecta! His name has stuck are then eaten by birds such as weddings, birthdays, and old... Polynesian crops plants with this name, tī kōuka, refers to the of... J., Robertson, G. I., & Hawthorne, B.T ) grown at locations! Centre of the Trade Marks Act 2002 keep the kauru process to ensure that name! They are young, these trees seem well adapted to local conditions by cabbage tree māori name sealers! Digestive process in the USA completely ring-barked for a metre above the ground be dipped in water are... Seeds from the meal this unique tree, swedes and New varieties of kūmara were also used for making range. Metres of natural forms species of native orchid settlement, they were ready for the Cromwell was... Smell and taste like molasses tui and pigeons to montane—suggest adaptations to colder weather the U.S in. Type are also found in northern Taranaki, cabbage trees of the margins! To 26 percent ) was recorded around Auckland. [ 1 ] [ 17 ] November the. Māori and early European settlers flowering takes place over a wire in variety! ; Māori weaving ; Tāniko ; Tukutuku ( decorative woven panels ) plants soft green that... All over the country in a range of habitats from coastal areas through to March included wheat, potatoes maize! M ( 49ft ) by 5 m ( 49ft ) by 5 m ( 16ft at!

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